THOMAS HANBURY’S PLANTS
In the European context, gardens went through three common steps: in the eighteenth century; the first structural approach was linked to landscape movement, during the nineteenth there was a stronghorticultural species management, distinct from botanical studies, and finally in the last century there was a readjustment ofthe gardens, then architecture predominated through the shapes and colour of planting.
Similar dynamics are those that have also characterized the Hanbury Botanical Gardens, whose actual condition is the result of two stages: during the first, between 1867 and 1907, Thomas and Daniel Hanbury planted mainly to enhance their taste for collecting and the study of exotic plants, in a second period, beginning in 1918, Cecil and Dorothy Hanbury put more emphasis on the aesthetic aspect of the garden.
Dorothy Hanbury worked hard to open several interesting views of both of architectural and botanical interest , so that the various elements did not hinder the most scenic spots, for this reason Dorothy studied how to approach flowers from the aspect of colour combinations both in summer and spring. She enlisted the aid of her father John Frederic Symons-Jeune, well known landscape architect, and her brother Bertram Symons-Jeune, known for his rock gardens and Phlox, to help in redesigning the garden.
In fact the gap between these two phases of managing the property was not greatly marked. The research and scientific work was always in tune with the landscape and the aesthetics ofthe layout.
There are many historic trees and other plants in the property that are connected to significant moments in Thomas Hanbury’s life and to his particular choices regarding the planting ofthe Garden.
The Hanbury Botanical Garden was created in 1867. The property consisted of an olive grove in the central part, and by citrus trees and vines, to a lesser extent arranged in bands. Starting from this agricultural base, the Hanbury brothers gave birth to their dream.
The initial plants that they chose for the garden were not only considered for their interest or their exotic appearance, but they were also the subject of pharmacological research and economic importance.
Individual examples are: Schinus molle (HT01) growing out of a recess of the wall near the entrance driveway. Acquired in December of 1867, it is better known as the false pepper, these trees belong to the Anacardiaceae family and originate in the highlands of Bolivia, Peru and Chile.
They are much appreciated for their willowy shape, and for the fragrant smell that characterizes every part ofthe plant, especially the berries, which are used as a spice.
These can be eaten, but only in small quantities, because they contain toxic substances. In traditional medicine, false pepper was used to treat wounds and infections thanks to its antiseptic power. It has also been used for centuries as an antidepressant, a diuretic, or to relieve toothache and rheumatism. In the Hanbury Gardens this tree is perfectly acclimatized. They bloom from June to August and fruit between September and December.
In the flowerbed in front of Casa Giacinto, there are two large bushes of Rosa banksiae lutescens (HT02). This rose with yellow flowers was planted in the garden in December 1870; the taxon was in fact discovered in China and introduced into Europe by Thomas Hanbury and Sir Joseph Hooker,who oversaw the introduction of the Rose banksiae in Europe, in particular this yellow species at La Mortola. The species is native to western China, especially the regions of Yunnan and Shanxi. There are several examples now spread around the garden. It blooms from April to May and fruits in November and December.
The first rose bushes were introduced in autumn 1867 and came from the garden of Thomas’s father in Clapham, but other species and cultivar were purchased from Hyeres nurseries in Huber, Nabonnand in Golfe-Juan and M. Thuret’s garden at Cap d’Antibes.
Along the wall of the descending path “Paramu”, there is a small stretch of the climber, Macfadyen unguis-cati (HT03). Belonging to the Bignoniaceae family, this species is a native of Brazil, it has become naturalized within the garden and flowers between May and June. The first plants were introduced in 1875.
1875 was a significant year in the history of Hanbury Gardens; in the fact that Daniel Hanbury died. He had provided the scientific basis for the planning of the garden along with some ofthe landscaping and management. Thomas also employed expert botanists from Germany such as Gustav Cronemayer, Kurt Dinter and Alywin Berger.
From the little half moon terrace, one can enjoy a spectacular view (HT04), you can see how the peripheral area was more rugged, and it is still covered with natural vegetation consisting of Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine) and other Mediterranean species .
On March 25, 1882 Queen Victoria, during a visit to La Mortola, looked down on the sea said, “it is a perfect picture, the portrait ofParadise.”
The Aleppo pine is a thermophilic species and it is extremely resistant to drought.
In Italy it is wild occurring in many rough and rocky limestone areas, it also grows along some coastal areas of the Gargano, Liguria (Balzi Rossi, Capo Noli), and Sicily.
An interesting artistic sideline is that the painter Paul Cezanne had an Aleppo pine in his garden in Provence; this tree was the inspiration and model for his famous painting, “The Big Trees”.
Pausing on the little steps to the left of the main path down, you can see the steep slope ofthe land, a natural phenomenon as a result ofwater running off. (HT05).
In 1868 the agronomist and landscape architect Ludwig Winter became curator of the gardens. The Hanbury brothers and Winter had to solve their first problem of the soil being washed away due to autumn rains. They resolved it with major operations remodeling and terracing the ground; they also set up an irrigation system that helped to cope with summer droughts.
The specimen of Ceratonia siliqua (HT06) is in the flowerbed on the corner of the Cycas path, it was planted before 1867. The species belongs to the Caesalpiniaceae family, and it is originally from the Arabian Peninsula, although it is now widespread and wild around the Mediterranean basin.
The carob tree is an ancient and undemanding plant, that grows well in arid and calcareous soils; it blooms between October and November and fruits between September and October.
In Italy it is cultivated in Sicily, where some companies are still involved in processing the fruits which were used in the confectionery and food industries or for the fermentation of the production of ethyl alcohol, but are now used mostly in cattle feed. In Arabic, the seeds were called khirat (carat), as they are particularly uniform in size and weight, they constituted the unit of a measure (carat) used for the evaluation of gold. It was thought that their weight was constant and the equivalent to about 1 / 5 ofa gram.
Historical data shows that the Avenue of Cycas was already complete in 1905. The collection includes several species considered living fossils. It is actually a very ancient group that in Mesozoic Era (200 to 100 million years ago) constituted about two-fifths ofthe terrestrial flora.
The specimens of Cycas revoluta (HT07) which grow there are both pollen holders (male) and ovules holders (female). The species is native to South East Asia and Japan, and it is well acclimatized in the garden; the pollen is produced in August, and the seeds ripen in April.
The pith of the stem is used in the East for the preparation of sago, a substance used as starch, which is also exported.
A warning for those who keep pets in their garden: parts of cycads can cause respiratory damage, and in serious cases even death ifeaten by dogs or cats.
The Cycas collection also contains numerous Zamiaceae, including Encephalartos altensteinii, E. lehmannii, and E. horridus (HT08) from Cape Province. They were planted in the gardens before 1889, the individuals are partly tender and partly acclimatized; they do not produce seeds. The genus name Encephalartos derives from the Greek en = inside, kephalé = head and àrtos = bread, referring to the characteristic ofthe stem which is internally very rich in starch.
Encephalartos horridus is an endangered species in the IUCN Red List.
Historically it became extinct in its natural habitat because it was over harvested by collectors, but thanks to cultivation in nurseries and gardens, this pressure has now been reduced.
Going down the path alongside the area to the southwest of the Temple of 4 Seasons, one can admire two big trees that were planted in the early life of the garden. They are two specimens of Pinus canariense (HT09), a species native to the Canary Islands (Tenerife, La Palma and Gran Canaria), where they create great forests. In the wild, their foliage contributes towards the water cycle on the islands. The branches intercept the currents of air coming from Atlantic, condensing them, the drops of water then slide down the stem to the ground where they are absorbed, adding to the underground water table. There are various examples growing in the garden, they produce pollen between March and April and the seeds from August to October.
In the same area there is a large specimen of Cupressus lusitanica (HT10); now wild, this tree comes from among many seeds that were given to Thomas Hanbury in 1869 by M. Thuret, in Antibes. It is worth mentioning that Thomas and his curators, had established a long association and special relationship with the diplomatic Gustave Thuret, who had created one ofthe major gardens in Europe.
Known as Mexican white cedar, Cupressus lusitanica is a species native to Mexico and Central America (Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras). The scientific name “lusitanica”, comes from Portugal, and refers to the most recent cultivation of plants imported from Mexico to Buçaco monastery in Portugal around 1634; these trees were over 130 years when the botanical species was described by Miller in 1768. It is widely cultivated as an ornamental tree in all temperate and subtropical regions.
In some parts of the garden there are limited travertine areas that give rise to a sandy soil, good for cultivation, for example, for the genus Melaleuca (HT11).
Melaleuca belongs to the Myrtaceae family and it is most common in Australia. It contains an essential oil used in natural medicine and healing such as germicide, antiseptic, antifungal, antibacterial and antiviral, it is also very useful in preventing infestations of lice and fleas. In English it is called tea tree oil. It was even drunk by Captain Cook and his crew when they landed in Australia.
The area below the Temple of 4 Seasons hosts a rich vegetation, includingArtemisia arborescens (HT12). This is an important plant that brings to mind why the Mediterranean vegetation attracted tourists from Northern Europe in Thomas’s time.
The specimen of Schotia brachypetala (HT13), growing in the band above the main Pergola, bloomed for the first time in July 1909. Now well-acclimatized, the plant continues to bloom in June and July and fruits in January and February. The species belongs to the Caesalpiniaceae family, and it grows in subtropical areas ofAfrica, particularly in the highlands of Zimbabwe. The common name of “drunken parrots tree” is due to the large number of parrots that perch on the tree during the flowering season; the flowers contain nectar that tends to ferment, resulting in a narcotic effect to the birds.
A little further, there is a well-acclimatized speHT14cimen of Convolvulus floridus (HT14) planted in the garden in 1869; that year many plants were brought from Paris, Montpellier, and Kew, thanks to the friendship Thomas had with scientists, nurserymen and directors of botanical gardens. This particular convolvulus is a native of the Canary Isles, it is a perennial evergreen shrub that
prefers warm climates; it blooms between May and August, and fruits in August.
In 1871, ThHT15omas and Daniel Hanbury visited the Oriental Garden in Grimaldi, near Mentone. Here on the Riviera, Dr Bennett was among the first to create a botanical garden, which soon became famous throughout Europe. Some elements of Bennett’s garden are also reflected at La Mortola, like the pergola. The pergola, (orTopia) was restored with stronger supports and adorned with a collection of climbing plants.
An example is the specimen of Solanum wenlandii (HT15) planted in 1901. It is a native of Costa Rica, this climber, an almost evergreen species, has a peculiar leaf polymorphism: the leaves are pinnated at the base of the plant, they are tri-lobed at the top and finally, towards the apex, they become oblong-acuminated and whole.
Many areas werHT16e created, maintaining the original terraces where vegetation (which at that time was consisted mainly of evergreen trees) was grouped by ecosystems oforigin.
One example is from the area of succulents that houses several collections of Euphorbiaceae, Cactaceae, Agavaceae, Aloaceae. Here one can admire an ancient specimen of Beaucarnea recurvata (HT16) planted in 1888 and well acclimatized. The species, known commonly as ponytail palm belongs to the Dracaenaceae family. Like most of the succulent plants, it can tolerate periods of drought. It is a slow-growing plant that takes a long time to form the typical globular “belly” shape at the bottom of the stem. In the wild the plant can reach the size of a
tree, about 10 meters in height.
Thomas and Daniel, even before encountering the property of La Mortola, were in touch with Robert Fortune, who exported many exotic plants from China. For example, the specimen of Acer oblongum (HT17) comes from this region; it was planted in 1870 and it grows in the area east of the “Cave of the slave”. An interesting note is that the Chinese used the leaves ofthis tree to wrap and store fruit and roots.
Another of the large historical trees of Hanbury Gardens is Cedrus deodara (HT18) visible in the area below the main Pergola. This species, belongs to the Pinaceae family, is a native of the western Himalayas, it is widespread in Pakistan (where it is the national tree), Kashmir, Tibet and Nepal. It can be found at altitudes around the 1550-3200 m. Its main use is ornamental and it was introduced to Europe in 1820. The specific epithet comes from the Sanskrit devad ru, tree of God: deva (god) and daru (wood). The cedar forests were a favourite place for meditation by ancient sages and their families, who were devoted to the god Shiva. The wood was historically used for the construction of religious temples and the production of incense.
The healing properties are also listed in Ayurvedic medicine; the oil is used in aromatherapy.
The tree grows on well-drainHT19ed soil, but rich in limestone. The species is well acclimatized within the garden, where it produces pollen and seeds between November and December. Among his numerous contacts, Thomas Hanbury knew the garden of Augustus Smith in the Scilly Isles. Smith was one of the most authoritative experts of the time and had created a wonderful botanical paradise, rich in species from Africa, Australia and America. For example, from Africa came the specimen of Dovyalis caffra (HT19) which was added to this garden in 1872 it is on the bend east of the palazzo. This species, belongs to the Flacourtiaceae family and it is known as the apple of the Kei river, because it originates from that region of South Africa. The fruit can be eaten fresh, made into jam or used in desserts. As it is salt resistant it is now also cultivated along coastal regions of the Mediterranean, California and Florida. Specimens in the gardens are well acclimatized, they bloom from April to May and fruit from August to September.
In front ofthe North entrance ofthe PaHT20lazzo terrace, on the right, you can see some Oreopanax dactilifolius (HT20) planted in August 1872. The species belonging to the Araliaceae family, it is a shrub endemic to Mexico that grows in full sun and diffused light. It is fairly common in the gardens of the “Riviera dei Fiori”, where the English have tested its outdoor acclimatization.
It must be remembered that knowledge of new exotic plant species had led the British to want to grow these plants in their gardens. Thus the “sub tropical movement” was born. In the second halfofthe nineteenth century, The English were encouraged to try and cultivate tropical and subtropical plants. They loved to identify techniques of propagation and cultivation that allowed these tender plants to survive in more unfavourable climates.
Thomas married Katherine Aldam Pease in 1868, and they spent the winters at La Mortola from 1874.
In February 1873 many specimens of Strelitzia reginae (HT21) were planted in the flowerbed to the left of the terrace. This species is a native of South Africa, it blooms from May to June and fruits between September and October. Its scientific name was given in honour of Queen Charlotte of Strelitz, wife of King George III. The flowers are similar to a crane, hence commonly called “Birds of Paradise”, they are normally pollinated by humming birds, when they poise to drink the nectar; the petals open and the bird legs are covered with pollen.
In the same terrace, another flowerbed is host to a small collection of camellias(HT22). This genus, with rhododendrons and azaleas, does not like the type of limestone soil common in this garden. Even in the time when the Hanbury family lived here the curators and gardeners had to find other solutions and change the chemical composition ofthe substrate.
During Thomas’s time here tall trees that created a woodland effect prevailed. One example is the Cupressus macrocarpa (HT23) in the area between the steps, going towards the valley. This cypress which is endemic to California was planted here before 1889. In its natural habitat this species is confined to two small protected forests where the trees are about 2000 years old. This cypress is now grown in Europe far from its original source in climates similar to California: such as Greece, Italy, Portugal. The wood is used in building boats or as decorative wood because ofits fine colour.
In the same area there is a specimen ofAraucaria cunninghamii (HT24) planted by Daniel Hanbury in June 1872. The scientific name of the plant was awarded in honour of the botanist and explorer Allan Cunningham, who collected the first specimen in 1820 along the coasts ofAustralia. Here the aborigines used its resin as cement. The trees can grow for up to 450 years and reach 60 meters in height. The specimens in this garden are acclimatized, they produce pollen between October and November, and sometimes the seeds mature in August and September.
Along the path under the large north large terrace, one can see the Valley (HT24), the wildest part of the Gardens. Here, when Thomas arrived, many trees had been felled for illegal sheep grazing; his intent was thus to restore the natural vegetation.
So, again he preserved or introduced several species: pines (Pinus halepensis, P. pinaster, P. canariensis, P. insignis and P. pinea), many cystus (Cistus sp. ), buckthorns (Rhamnus alaternus), and oaks (Quercus ilex). He also planted oleanders, wisteria and wetland species along the edge ofthe Sorba river.
Coming around to the south Terrace, one can admire a large, ancient shrub of Punica granatum (HT25), which already existed when Sir Thomas Hanbury bought the property.
Pomegranate is considered native to south west Asia, it has been cultivated in the Caucasus region since time immemorial. It was historically bought to the Mediterranean by the Phoenicians, Greeks and then by the Arabs. The genus name Punica is derived from the Roman name of the coastal region ofTunisia (also called Carthaginian) because the first fruits to be imported to Rome came from there.
The pomegranate is a symbol ofmany religions.
In the Bible (Deu. 8:8), the pomegranate is one of the seven fruits listed as a special product ofthe “Promised Land”.
For Jews, it is a symbol of honesty and fairness, because its fruit contains 613 seeds (some about 600), this is the same number required specifically in the Torah to behave wisely and fairly.
Some researchers in Jewish theology have also assumed that the “forbidden fruit” of the Garden of Eden was actually a pomegranate, not an apple. That consideration would also agree with the Quran(55:068), which describes the pomegranate growing in the Garden of Paradise.
The pomegranate is the emblem of the city of Granada (Spain) and of many cities in Turkey. A pomegranate was also designed to decorate the emblem of Queen Catherine of Aragon, first wife of King Henry VIII. He subsequently divorced her due to her inability to produce a son and the king then married his second wife Anne Boleyn. As soon as she became queen, she changed the original emblem, to a white falcon pecking at grains ofpomegranate.
In the area south east of the Moresco Mausoleum, hanging from a large cypress tree, one can admire a group of Ephedra altissima (HT26), a species native of the Atlas Mountains in Morocco, introduced to the garden before 1889 and becoming wild. Ephedra, also known as sea grapes, is a genus of shrub with branches like Equisetum, belonging to the division ofGnetophyta. The plants contain compounds used in the preparation of amphetamine drugs such as ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. They were traditionally used by the indigenous people for
medicinal purposes including the treatment of asthma, colds and fever. Ephedra may also be the plant used for the production of soma, an intoxicating juice used in sacrifices in the Indo-Iranian religion.
This area in front of the Moresco Mausoleum, also hosts a wide ilex wood (HT27), separated from its contemporaries, Thomas Hanbury wanted to enhance the role of wild vegetation, even from an aesthetic point of view; so in different parts ofthe property, he often tried to integrate Mediterranean species where there were exotic species as well.
Thomas loved cypresses and he kept the Cypress avenue flourishing as it descends from the Mausoleum to the ancient Roman road. The path continues on towards the distant olive avenue. The cypress tree represents death, whereas the olive is the tree of life; the path gives a continuity between the history and the landscape; these trees grew here hundreds of years ago. They complement each other with their shape: the cypress with its slender trunk, the linear, and the vertical branches that make the tree stern; the olive with the lower trunk, the gnarled branches and globular shape that make the tree cheerful.
At the end of the Cypress avenue, on the right, you can see a group of Acanthus arboreus (HT29), planted at the end of the nineteenth century, a native of tropical Africa.This species contains several alkaloids which have recently been isolated through new phyto-chemistry studies, it confirms the pharmacological interest ofDaniel Hanbury.
It was Daniel who introduced the Brugmansia orDatura (HT30) in the area north of the Roman road, they date back to the ‘800. Daniel, being a pharmacist, was very interested in the cultivation of the Solanaceae family because of their great pharmaceutical importance. In South America, from where they originate, these plants were used by the indigenous people as poisons for therapeutic, psychedelic and religious ceremonies. The presence of alkaloids, in fact, gives plants psychotropic and hallucinogenic properties. The flowers, bell or trumpet-shaped, are often pendulous and give off a slight scent that in our area attracts Herse convolvuli, this moth has a very long proboscis and replaces the work of the hummingbird in pollinating the plants.
To the left ofthe Avenue ofCypresses, in the area where there is a Melaleuca genus collection, one can admire another great historical tree of the Garden: Brachychiton discolor (HT31). Belonging to the Sterculiaceae family, this plant grows in forests in Australia, where it can reach 30 meters in height. The indigenous Australians use its wood for construction, while the seeds are eaten roasted. The species is well acclimatized in the garden, where it blooms in the summer and fruits between November and January.
After crossing the old Roman road, to the right of the steps leading to the Piana, you can see two large trees planted here early on when Thomas first began his garden. Photinia davidiana (HT32), belonging to the Rosaceae family; it is a native of China and East Asia and it was first introduced into North America as a garden plant.
Then Elaeocarpus obovatus (HT33) native to the tropical forests ofAustralia, where it reaches the 45 m high and 150 cm in diameter.
The area to the right ofthe Piana houses a wide collection ofcitrus and other exotic fruit trees from different origins, which fruit in the Mediterranean climate. Some plants, such as avocados, Persea americana (HT35), are quite common and now consumed worldwide, but other fruits are a bit less well known such as the feijoa, Acca sellowiana (HT34). This species is an evergreen tree originating from the highlands of South America. Flowers can be used for salads or melting on the tongue. The fruits have a soft flesh with a flavour between the pineapple and strawberry. The Feijoa is also cultivated in other parts of Italy (but especially in Liguria), it can be found in some countries of the ex Soviet Union and New Zealand, thanks to the fact that it can tolerate moderately low temperatures, even slightly below zero.
In the former Spanish colonies the feijoa was also known by the name of a common “guayabo” guava which had a double meaning and signified a young and attractive girl.
A specimen of Leptospermum levigatum (HT36) is also growing in the exotic fruit orchard. This plant was donated to Daniel Hanbury by M. Thuret, from Antibes, in October 1871. Commonly known as Australian tea tree, Leptospermum belongs to the Myrtaceae family. It grows wild along the coast ofAustralia, it has a strong resistance to salt, so much so that it is now used to stabilize the sand dunes in California.
A few meters on from the exotic fruit trees one can admire 2 large historical trees: the Podocarpus elongatus (HT37) and the Brachychiton acerifolius (HT38).
The name Podocarpus derives from the greek: podo- = foot and Karpos = fruit.
The species, originates from West Africa, and belongs to the family Cupressaceae, a group of conifers that produces seeds in globular cones. The wood of this tree was used for the construction of chairs. The specimen is well acclimatized here; it produces pollen in February, but no seeds.
The specimen of Brachychiton acerifolius was present in the gardens before 1912.
The species, first described in 1855, belongs to the Sterculiaceae family, and it is native to the subtropical regions of Australia. It is famous for the red bell-shaped flowers that cover the plant when it is still without leaves. The seeds are highly nutritious and are eaten by Aborigines, but they have to be roasted first so as to remove the small spines that surround them. The species is well acclimatized in the garden, it blooms between June and July, and fruits between November and December.
Between the ancient Roman road and the sea, beyond the old olive gHT39rove, you come across a large citrus grove (HT39) hosting an important collection of old varieties of citrus. A significant number of specimens were already there in 1867when Thomas Hanbury purchased the property and they remained within his plans for the garden. There are now many new species and varieties being cultivated: they are important for food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and ornamental uses.
The Citrus aurantium ‘Corniculata’ for example was already planted in 1880, Citrus maxima was planted in 1911 also Shaddock, (named in honour of the English captain who first introduced the species from India to Europe), with large fruit similar to grapefruit and weighing 1.5 kg.
This group of citrus is native to south Asia. They are believed to originate from a wild orange-reportedly the progenitor of both the sweet and bitter oranges, but particularly the sweet variety.
They were introduced into Europe by the Portuguese in the mid fifteenth century; they became widespread in Liguria, Nervi, Genoa and Sanremo by the beginning of the next century.
In the area between the olive mill and the pinewood, there is a towering tree of historical importance growing higher than the gardens: Cupressus torulosa (HT40). It is well acclimatized, and produces pollen between January and February; the seeds ripen between November and December.
This cypress grows in the Himalayas, China and Vietnam, at altitudes of 1000 and 3000 meters in tropical and subtropical forests. It is a species in danger of extinction in its natural habitat, and its presence here in the Botanical Gardens is part ofhelping to conserve the species. The wood is very aromatic, and the essential oil extracted from it is used in medicine as an anti-inflammatory and antiseptic.
Going down the steps to the west of the mill, in one of the terraced sections, one can admire an ancient specimen of Collet spinosa (HT41). The species belongs to the Rhamnaceae family and it is originally from Peru, Chile, Argentina and Uruguay. Growing wild in dry areas and full sun, the location in which it is planted here in the Hanbury Gardens is good. The species is well acclimatized, it blooms between March and May, and fruits between June and August.
Finally we arrive in the area closest to the sea, here east ofthe Pergola and near the bar there is a Buddleja madascariensis (HT42) dating back to 1878.
Many European gardens were enriched by different species of Buddleja by the end of 1700. The genus name comes from Pastor Adam Buddle, an English botanist and physician; the first to use that name was Dr. William Houston, a Scottish physician and botanist, but it was consolidated after Linnaeus used it (but miss spelt it) in his catalogue.
This species, is a native ofMadagascar, it has acclimatized without any problem, and is well-suited to coastal areas with mild winters, it blooms between January and April and fruits in July.
It should be noted that most plants in this garden flower during the winter or early spring, which is not surprising since this was the period when the Hanbury family came here.
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